Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a well-recognized risk factor for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The exposure to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), anti-platelets, and anticoagulants increases the risk of UGIB in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, the risk stratification of H. pylori infection is not known. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori and GIB in patients hospitalized with AIS.
In the nationwide data, hospitalization for AIS was identified by primary diagnosis using International Classification of Diseases, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Subgroup of patients with GIB and H. pylori were identified in AIS cohort. A stepwise multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to evaluate the outcome of upper GIB and role of H. Pylori in UGIB.
Overall 4,224,924 AIS hospitalizations were identified, out of which 18,629 (0.44%) had UGIB and 3122 (0.07%) had H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori-induced UGIB among UGIB in AIS was 3.05%. The prevalence of UGIB was markedly elevated among the H. pylori infection group (18.23% vs. 0.43%; p< 0.0001) compared to the non-H. pylori group. In multivariable regression analysis, H. pylori was associated with markedly elevated odds of UGIB (aOR: 27.75; 95% CI: 21.07–36.55; p< 0.0001).
H. pylori infection had increased risk-adjusted occurrence of UGIB amongst the AIS hospitalized patients. H. pylori testing may improve risk stratification for UGIB and lower the health care cost burden in stroke hospitalization.