Elevated cardiac troponin I as a predictor of outcomes in COVID-19 hospitalizations: a meta-analysis

Globally, coronavirus is causing more social, economic and healthcare disruption than expected. The emerging literature has reported the complications of coronavirus, and the mortality and risk factors involved, including cardiac injury and multisystem organ failure.

In this meta-analysis, we aim to evaluate the association of elevated troponin I levels with outcomes in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Observational studies describing troponin I levels and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from 1 December 2019 to 15 August 2020 were identified. Data were extracted following PRISMA guidelines with a consensus of two independent reviewers. Adverse outcomes were defined as admission to intensive care units (ICUs), oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained and forest plots were created using random-effects models.

Ten studies with 3982 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. In patients with poor outcomes, the prevalence of elevated troponin I levels was 51% (690/1341). In meta-analysis, patients with elevated troponin I levels had higher odds of poor outcomes compared to better outcomes with pooled OR of 7.92 (95% CI: 3.70-16.97; p<0.00001) with 70% heterogeneity (p=0.0005).

Our meta-analysis suggests that COVID-19 patients with elevated troponin I levels had a higher risk of poor outcomes. Hence, evaluating the troponin I levels might be helpful in preventing risk of cardiac complications and other organ dysfunction.