Prevalence and Outcomes Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency among Indexed Hospitalizations with Cardiovascular Disease and Cerebrovascular Disorder—A Nationwide Study
Background According to past studies, recovery and survival following severe vascular events such as acute myocardial infarction and stroke are negatively impacted by vitamin D deficiency. However, the national estimate on disability-related burden is unclear. We intend to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular disorder (CeVD).
Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on the Nationwide Inpatient Sample data (2016–2017) of adult (≥18 years) hospitalizations. We identified patients with a secondary diagnosis of VDD and a primary diagnosis of CVD and CeVD using the 9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, clinical modification code (ICD-10-CM) codes. A univariate and mixed-effect multivariable survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the prevalence, disability, and discharge disposition of patients with CVD and CeVD in the presence of VDD.
Results Among 58,259,589 USA hospitalizations, 3.44%, 2.15%, 0.06%, 1.28%, 11.49%, 1.71%, 0.38%, 0.23%, and 0.08% had primary admission of IHD, acute MI, angina, AFib, CHF, AIS, TIA, ICeH, and SAH, respectively and 1.82% had VDD. The prevalence of hospitalizations due to CHF (14.66% vs. 11.43%), AIS (1.87% vs. 1.71%), and TIA (0.4% vs. 0.38%) was higher among VDD patients as compared with non-VDD patients (p < 0.0001). In a regression analysis, as compare with non-VDD patients, the VDD patients were associated with higher odds of discharge to non-home facilities with an admission diagnosis of CHF (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07–1.09), IHD (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21–1.28), acute MI (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.19–1.28), AFib (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.16–1.27), and TIA (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.11–1.28). VDD was associated with higher odds of severe or extreme disability among patients hospitalized with AIS (aOR 1.1, 95% CI 1.06–1.14), ICeH (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08–1.38), TIA (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25–1.47), IHD (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33–1.41), acute MI (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.38–1.49), AFib (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.15), and CHF (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02–1.05) as compared with non-VDD.
Conclusions CVD and CeVD in the presence of VDD increase the disability and discharge to non-home facilities among USA hospitalizations. Future studies should be planned to evaluate the effect of VDD replacement for improving outcomes.