Lambl’s Excrescence Associated with Recurrent Ischemic Strokes
Lambl’s excrescence (LE) is a rare thin, mobile, filiform frond on the endocardial surface of cardiac valves responsible for recurrent ischemic strokes due to embolic phenomena. Due to nonspecific symptoms, sometimes the diagnosis is challenging. It can be diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) with increased sensitivity. Several case reports have been published with a strategy to manage LE but there is lack of consensus. We report a case of a 75-year-old patient with the LE arising from aortic valve resulting in recurrent ischemic strokes within a short period and its management.
A 75-year-old male with multiple vascular risk factors presented with confusion, altered mental status of unknown onset and aphasia. He denied weakness, numbness, or other focal neurological deficits. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 5. IV tPA was not given due to the unknown onset of symptoms. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute/subacute left thalamic lacunar infarct. TEE demonstrated a 7-mm linear fibrinous mass on the valve. The patient was on aspirin which was changed to clopidogrel. After 2 weeks, the patient readmitted with similar presentation. MRI showed subacute right parietal cortical infarct. The patient was advised to proceed with surgical resection of LE. Due to refusal for surgery, he was kept on 30 days cardiac monitor and had given anticoagulant therapy for secondary prevention of stroke.
Although wide range from single or dual antiplatelet therapy to full dose anticoagulation have been tried, surgical intervention should be considered in case of multiple ischemic strokes to mitigate the risk of embolism.